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So you know what behaviour you need to teach…but where do you start?
Following on from our task analysis post last week, you may now be at the point where you have worked out the steps of the routine behaviour that you need to teach your child. The question now is to work out which skill to teach first. The answer isn’t as obvious as you may think!
What is Chaining?
Chaining is the technique used in Applied Behaviour Analysis interventions to systematically teach a sequence of skills. Behaviour chains are a series of related behaviours, each of which leads to the next step. For example in brushing teeth, the first step may be to take the lid off the toothpaste, then squeeze a little of it onto the brush, replacing the lid, then bringing the brush to the mouth and so on. Each step along the way cues the next step in the sequence. We are working towards being able to reinforce the last step (e.g. teeth brushed).
There are actually four types of chaining procedures to choose from:
(b) Backward Chaining with Leaps Ahead;
(c) Forward Chaining; and
(d) Total Task Chaining.
Confused? Don’t worry – we are going to break each of these down so you can work out which will be the best procedure to use for the behaviour you are trying to teach your child.
You don’t always have to start at the beginning. Sometimes we can teach a routine by starting with the last step. In backward chaining:
- The steps are taught in reverse order. In another word, first skill to be taught is the last skill on the chain.
- The facilitator supports (prompts) the learner through the first several steps and the learner independently finishes the last step to finish the task.
- Once the last step is mastered, the step before the last step is then being taught.
- This technique is often used for tasks with a motivating end (e.g. baking cookies) or to allow escape (e.g. finish brushing teeth, putting the tooth brush away)
Let’s swap from brushing teeth to cooking a batch of cookies. Most children like cookies so this task may be more motivating. There is also an obvious reinforcer – getting to eat cookies once they are cooked!
The sequence for eating cookies may look like this for a child:
(1) Mix dry ingredients with wet ingredients
(2) Stir to mix
(3) Shape into small balls
(4) Place on tray
(5) Push down on the dough on the tray
(6) Bake (note – the parent might choose to do this step for a young child)
Using a backward chaining procedure you would prompt them through steps 1-5. This might look like verbal instruction or physically showing a child how to mix ingredients. When it came to step 6 (and if this was appropriate for their age) the child would be expected to do this step by themselves, with praise at the end from their parent. Once this step is mastered, then the next step is the pushing down on the dough and so on.Reinforcement (praise) is linked to either the end of the sequence once it’s mastered or to the individual step being taught.
The key to using a chaining technique is to be very clear about the behaviour you are trying to teach.
In next week’s post, we are going to look at Backward Chaining with Leaps Ahead.
As always you are very welcome to contact Jenny Lin, Program Manager for assistance on any aspect of your child’s behaviour. Jenny can be contacted through the office on 9274 7062.